Studies on large caliber naval gun rifle barrels gave rise to accurate Time of Flight conversions to temperature. Methods of determining temperature and heat flux are demonstrated.
Ultrasonic investigation of materials can characterize material modulus and thermal expansion data needed to calibrate ultrasonic thermometry applications. Here, Alumina is taken up past its melting point during characterization.
Rapid variations in ultrasonic time-of-flight have been used to
estimate heat flux in a glass bottle molding. This application
demonstrates the rapid response and remote sensing characteristics
for the ultrasonic method.
New possibilities in non-intrusive mass flow and temperature measurement are enabled by current ultrasonic instrumentation and signal processing. It is now feasible to measure variations in ultrasonic time-of-flight (ToF) with precision in the picosecond range. For example, the local temperature of a fluid flowing in a channel can be measured with sensors attached to an exterior surface.